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Periodontal diseases are a major dental health concern, affecting millions worldwide. Traditional methods to control these pathogens include antimicrobial mouth rinses. However, most antimicrobial agents are nonselective, targeting both harmful and beneficial bacteria. This can disrupt the delicate balance of the oral microbiome, potentially causing more harm than good.

A novel approach using electrolyzed saline (EOS) as a mouth rinse has been investigated to address this issue.

This study focuses on how EOS can selectively target pathogenic bacteria while preserving beneficial species, thereby maintaining a healthy oral environment.

The Study: Methodology and Findings

Preparation and Application of Electrolyzed Saline

Electrolyzed saline was prepared from sterile saline using a portable electrolysis device. The study utilized hydroxyapatite discs to grow multispecies oral biofilms that mimic both healthy (homeostatic) and disease-causing (dysbiotic) conditions. These biofilms were then rinsed daily with EOS.

Controls and Comparative Analysis

Two control groups were included:

  1. Positive Control: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), known for its strong antimicrobial properties.
  2. Negative Control: Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), which has no antimicrobial effect.

After three rinses, various analyses were conducted:

  • Viability Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR): To measure bacterial counts.
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy: To observe biofilm structure.
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): To analyze metabolic activity by measuring organic acid content.

Biocompatibility Testing

To assess cytotoxicity and inflammation induction, human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) were exposed to EOS. Additionally, HOKs were exposed to biofilms rinsed with EOS to evaluate immunogenicity through interleukin 8 (IL-8) production.

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Key Results

Effectiveness Against Pathogens

Rinsing dysbiotic biofilms with EOS resulted in significant reductions in pathogenic bacteria (>3 log10 Geq/mm² reduction). This led to a marked decrease in pathobiont abundance (≤1%) and an increase in commensal species dominance (≥99%).

Biofilm Metabolism and Structure

The metabolic activity analysis showed that EOS altered the biofilm metabolism favorably. Scanning electron micrographs confirmed that EOS did not damage homeostatic biofilms while effectively disrupting dysbiotic ones.

Biocompatibility

EOS demonstrated excellent biocompatibility:

  • No cytotoxic effects were observed at tested concentrations.
  • No induction of IL-8 production was noted in HOKs exposed to EOS or rinsed biofilms.

Conclusion

The findings suggest that electrolyzed saline is a promising alternative for managing periodontal diseases without disrupting the overall microbial balance in the mouth. By selectively targeting harmful pathogens while preserving beneficial bacteria, EOS offers a balanced approach that could improve oral health outcomes significantly.

Given its effectiveness and safety profile, further clinical trials should be considered to validate these results in real-world settings. If successful, electrolyzed saline could become a staple in periodontal disease prevention and management protocols, offering patients a safer and more effective solution for maintaining oral health.

Source: Journal of Dental Research

Author

  • Dr.Zainab Rangwala completed her graduation from the Goverment Dental College,Jamnagar.. Practicing since 6 years, she has a keen interest in new advances in the field of health.She is currently the head of Media and PR in Dentalreach.

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Dr.Zainab Rangwala completed her graduation from the Goverment Dental College,Jamnagar.. Practicing since 6 years, she has a keen interest in new advances in the field of health.She is currently the head of Media and PR in Dentalreach.

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